The most significant factor impacting heat exchange efficiency is fouling. Concentrated fluid undergoing evaporation can precipitate salts or deposit various substances on heat exchange surfaces.

Key factors influencing fouling include:

  • Composition of the solution being treated
  • Type of fluid flow (turbulent or laminar)
  • Geometry of the heat exchange surface

Attention to these factors is crucial, as high fouling reduces the efficiency of the evaporation-concentration process.

Methods for minimizing fouling in vacuum evaporators include:

  • Diligent effluent management: Excessive concentration can lead to deposits regardless of the type of exchanger used.
  • Proper cleaning frequency: Periodic cleaning cycles are necessary to prevent fouling buildup over time.
  • Selection of appropriate chemical agents: Specific chemical products (acidic or alkaline solutions, detergents, etc.) are required to effectively dissolve and remove different types of fouling deposits.

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